On this day, April 30, 1870, approximately 150 Pinal and Aravaipa Apaches (including 142 women and children) were massacred by six Americans, 48 Mexicans, and 92 O'odham. The Native Americans had been camped at Aravaipa Creek, 5 miles east of Camp Grant (Arizona).
The Aravaipa Creek camp was a peaceful encampment of Native Americans who lived symbiotically with the soldiers at Camp Grant, mainly because of the leadership of Lt. Royal Emerson Whitman and Chief Eskiminzin. Unfortunately, European-American settlers took issue with the presence of the Native Americans and organized the massacre. Its was well-known that William S. Oury and Jesús María Elías planned the massacre, so President Grant demanded indictments. Two months later, the jury deliberated for 19 minutes and to pronounced a verdict of not guilty for each of the 100 assailants who had been charged with 108 counts of murder.